Earhart’s Disappearance Leads to New Britain


Earhart’s Disappearance Leads to New Britain:

Second World War Australian Patrol Finds Tangible Evidence

Of all the various theories and searches regarding the disappearance of Amelia Earhart, Fred Noonan, and their Lockheed Electra, only one endeavor has the tangible documentary evidence and eyewitness accounts to buttress the conclusion to their final resting place – the jungle floor in Papua New Guinea. In 1945, an Australian infantry unit discovered an unpainted all-metal twin-engine aircraft wreck in the jungle of East New Britain Island, in what was then called New Guinea.

The Australian infantry patrol was unsure of their actual position in the jungle and were on site for only a few minutes. Before they left the site they retrieved a metal tag hanging by wire on an engine mount. The Australians reported their find and turned in the tag upon return to base. The tag has yet to be recovered from the maze of Australian and American archives, but the letters and numbers etched upon it were transcribed to a wartime map. The map, used by the same Australian unit, was rediscovered in the early 1990’s and revealed a notation “C/N 1055” and two other distinctive identifiers of Amelia Earhart’s Lockheed Electra Model 10E.

On 2 July 1937, while en route to Howland Island from Lae, New Guinea, pilot Amelia Earhart and her navigator Fred Noonan disappeared shortly before they were to arrive at Howland Island – up to 2,600 miles and 20 hours after take-off. They were flying a modified Electra aircraft built specifically for the around-the-world journey. Had they arrived at Howland Island, their next stop would have been Hawaii, and finally California. A flight around the world would have been the first by a woman pilot. They undoubtedly encountered headwinds on the flight. The widely accepted last radio voice message from her was “…we are running on line north and south…” manually recorded 20 hours and 14 minutes after take-off by a United States Coast Guard ship at Howland.

This project theory holds that Earhart and Noonan, after flying some 19 hours should have “arrived” close to Howland, but after an hour of fruitless searching for the island, Amelia invoked the Contingency Plan she had made and turned back for the Gilbert Islands. While there were no known usable runways between Lae and Howland except for Rabaul, there was at least the opportunity to ditch the aircraft near to or crash-land on the numerous inhabited islands in the Gilberts along the way if needed, and there was more than sufficient range to reach Ocean or Nauru Islands. Earhart carefully husbanded the engines to extract the maximum range from the remaining fuel. The aircraft had an advertised range of some 4,000 miles in calm air; there should have been plenty of fuel to retreat to the Gilberts at a minimum. Among the myriad of alleged radio calls from Earhart after her last confirmed message were four radio calls heard by the radio operator on Nauru Island…one call was heard just under two hours from her “final” transmission, and some 10 hours later, three more final calls on the pre-selected frequency were heard by the Nauru radioman. The Nauru radio operator was one of only a few radio operators who had reliably monitored Earhart on her outbound leg to Howland – he knew the sound of her voice over the radio. In any event, her aircraft has been projected to have run out of fuel some 50 miles south of Rabaul, New Britain Island, and then crash into the jungle.


David Billings, a now retired aircraft engineering professional, has been analyzing the flight and searching for Earhart’s Electra for more than 20 years in the jungle of East New Britain. Dense jungle, harsh terrain, poor maps, imprecise archival information, personal resource limitations, and possible natural or manmade burial of the wreckage, have thwarted success. He has led many expeditions into the search area, and has refined his analysis to the likely wreck site using terrain mobility studies, geospatial analysis of aerial and satellite images, custom-built maps, and re-analysed archival maps and documents. As an example, the Australian-held wartime map is authentic, and the handwriting reflects unmistakable discreet data points and little known references of military operations in 1945 East New Britain.


The longtime map holder, the Second World War Infantry Unit clerk, Len Willoughby, retrieved the map from a map case on a pile of discarded equipment in 1945, and kept the map until he mailed it to former-Corporal Don Angwin in 1993 (and who revealed it to Mr. Billings in 1994). Neither of these former infantrymen had the motive nor “insider” expertise to create or introduce details concerning the Electra’s obscure component identification or situational nuances. The string of numbers and letters, “600H/P. S3H/1 C/N1055,” remains the most significant historical notation found to date in the search for Earhart’s aircraft. This alpha-numeric sequence almost certainly mirrors the details on the metal tag recovered from the engine mount by one of the Australian soldiers on 17 April 1945. This three-group sequence translates to 600 Horsepower, Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1, airframe Construction Number 1055. This airframe construction number IS Amelia Earhart’s Lockheed 10E Electra aircraft, and the engine type exactly matches as well. The eyewitness visual descriptions from three of the Australian veterans at the scene also strongly support this supposition. The date on the map, 24 May 1945, refers to the return answer to the Australians from the American Army, who did not believe it was “one of theirs.”

Powerpoint_AE_PNG_NB_01 14 August 2015

David Billings is planning his final foray into East New Britain in 2018, the 81st anniversary of Earhart’s disappearance.

New satellite maps, a LiDAR survey with GPS-aided systematic search patterns, and more time on site will help in the search.

The search costs thus far have been borne primarily by David with some help from America, from team members and private donations, all of which has been expended on previous expeditions. Some funding will go a long way to assist in providing the answer…

David says:

“After much thought and new analysis of what we do know, a change of tactics is called for and a new search area has been selected. The area now selected was seen to have an area of “loose bare earth” in 1996 but not considered to be of importance as at that time, we were looking for an aircraft wreck on the surface.

The search area is quite remote and every expedition to this area costs a great deal.

Now retired, I need some financial assistance to be able to continue this very interesting project. We have good evidence but need adequate funding. All donations will be thankfully received and acknowledged.”

David Billings, January 2016.

Part 1 – The Beginning | Part 2 – PNG History/Topography | Part 3 – Wreckage is Found
Part 4 – Tangible EvidencePart 5 – Analysis | Part 6 – Lae to Howland Island
Part 7 – Howland area to New Britain – To the Gilberts…
Part 8 – Howland area to New Britain – Flying Westwards for Rabaul
Part 9 – Not Seen, But Not Forgotten
Part 10 – 2017 Expedition Overview
Home | Contact

Screen Shot 2016-03-19 at 9.31.00 PM


I would like to express my greatest thanks to the men of the 11th Australian Infantry Battalion – specifically Don Angwin, Ken Backhouse, Keith Nurse, Roy Walsh and Len Willoughby.

Google Earth:  The Google Earth application has been of enormous assistance with this project in East New Britain by the project being able to look down on the search area for one, and within the project the ability to ascertain distances and locations for points of the Earhart story has been exceedingly helpful.

The Australian War Memorial contains valuable information concerning the efforts of the particular patrol  that found wreckage but also the information contained in the records offers a surrounding view of the events in New Britain at that time of crisis during World War Two.  The AWM records provided invaluable assistance.

The International Group for Historical Aircraft Recovery (TIGHAR), the organisation based in the U.S. that has carried out research over the years into the disappearance of the Electra and her two crew members.  TIGHAR documentation, and the ascertaining of pertinent facts from within the research contained on the TIGHAR site, is acknowledged.


Copyright 2004 to 2018 David Billings – All Rights Reserved

146 thoughts on “Earhart’s Disappearance Leads to New Britain

  1. @ “H” for December 18th….

    Cold, Chilled or Icy Fuel……

    Well, If you can get it and can run it into the engine without problems then the theory is that a “cold gallon of gas” has more energy than a “hot gallon of gas”, because by volume it weighs more (is more dense) and therefore contains more energy than a hot gallon…… So if you are loaded with 1100 USG of “chilled” fuel and leave it standing in the sun you might end up with 1103 USG of less chilled fuel by the time you take off….big deal…

    Personally, I feel it would cause more problems which would outweigh the slight advantage gained.

    You have to chill it and you have to keep the aircraft chilled before take-off. Then you have to climb quickly to where it is cold, to keep it cold…… which means wasting fuel and shortening your track distance with a steep climb as against a slow climb at less power while proportionally increasing your track distance.

    Remember that the R1340-S3H1 Wasp was a supercharged engine with a permanently running direct drive blower but nevertheless it was a carburetor engine, ie; it was not an injected engine. Carburettors are prone to icing up in the cone leading to the venturi, so pushing icy cold fuel through a carburettor is not a good idea. Somewhere in one of the books Earhart mentions carb. heat and she would need it at cruising altitude. Using weakened mixture for economy will also make a Pilot very aware that carb. heat management is essential. Last Flight mentions (on Page 33): “Ice in Carb, engine in and out, leaned too much…”. Over any ocean, that… would get a PIlot’s attention very rapidly….. That quote is also indicative that Earhart was possibly using “Lean of Peak”, where the mixture is leaned off slightly more than normal. Earhart had met Charles Lindbergh and Lindbergh was said to be a user of Lean of Peak.

    The temperature of the air/fuel mixture going into the cylinder on the intake stroke is also crucial to the power developed. A “cool” dense charge of air/fuel mixture will produce more power than a “hot’ less dense charge of mixture for instance but with a blower running at a ratio of 10 to 1, doing its best to compress the mixture, compressing the mixture will heat it up anyway (Boyle’s Law). The weight of the mixture charge also factors into this and that is why water injection is sometime used in a piston engine at take-off because a few drops of water injected with the mixture increase the weight of the mixture charge. Cool fuel and cool air will add to the power generated, for sure, Those of us that have lived in places where cold fogs exist will perhaps have noticed how their car seems a little perkier on cold frosty mornings…. when you have got it started that is !

    There is a very good book I read years ago about the use of cold fuel and that is “Red Ball in the Sky” by Charles F. Blair (Jr). Blair was famous for flying an early Model P-51 Mustang over the Arctic on record runs. The Mustang had been modified to have “wet wings” so the whole of the wing was a fuel tank and his most famous flight over that continent was from Bardufoss in Norway to Alaska (Fairbanks ?) over the pole. Blair’s system was to cram as much fuel as he could into the Mustang so as to ensure he had plenty because navigating over the pole is not an easy thing to do. Of note was that the wing had a leak, so he was quite brave….! Blair was also famous as the man that married the lovely Maureen O’Hara (a 60’s and 70’s film actress for the young ‘uns). Blair’s Mustang hangs from the rafters in the Smithsonian….




  2. Are you familiar with retired USAF Pilot/Navigator Major Joe Lodrige’s explanation on where Amelia Earhart went missing…? Lecture published on You Tube in May 2017. He surmises that there was insufficient fuel to reach the Gilberts and that AE and FN had crashed east of Howland and Baker, at 10N 175.55W


    1. @ GlueBall December 19th…

      Yes GlueBall, I have watched Major Lodrige’s theory on the loss at sea, which makes it join the “Crashed and Sankers” series of theories. Has Major Lodrige seen mine ?

      Is Major Lodrige aware of the “Contingency Plan” I wonder, for it would be a brave duo that would venture out towards HOW without considering the need for an alternate. An alternate plan does exist in the transcription in the University of Wyoming as has been mentioned, many times.

      Earhart and Noonan and the Theories:

      I think you would agree that “each and every” theory has to be considered in the search for the Electra and AE & FN. If only the few theories without evidence are considered, then we will get absolutely “Nowhere.”

      Of these theories, around US$10 M + has been spent on scouring the sea-bed as attempts for the C & S theories. These theories are “also” put out by qualified Navigators and those searches of the sea-bed have been made without any success. This money has been spent nevertheless (by Nauticos and Ted Waitt), despite there being no evidence of a loss at sea. The Northern Ireland Group who also have a theory made by a Navigator, are yet to attempt the feat when they can raise the money….they also have no evidence.

      Meanwhile, we wait for anther possible attempt by the group who have “the other website” which seems to be in an exceedingly quiet mood at present. This “other website” group have already spent US$10M of OPM, based on “no evidence” and this group has a theory based on an ever-expanding set of assumptions which bulge outwards like some huge inflated rubber balloon. I see that they are now asking for funds to be able to hear Glen Miller again….. kind of a Moonlight Serenade !

      Then we have The Marshalls and Saipan theories which have a plethora of eye-witnesses which accuse the Japanese of locking up Earhart and Noonan and basically throwing away the key until their souls depart this Earth…. The Japanese were meticulous at keeping records of their deeds. The Unit 731 Harbin records are perfect examples of this record keeping and yet no written evidence of AE & FN being held have emerged and the Marines and Army who were at ASLITO Field on Saipan when the Electra was found in a hangar there, have not come forward to say “Hello”….. yet.

      Meanwhile, here in Australia we have a modest attempt at finding the Electra, which actually does have some evidence in documentary form written on a WWII Map. This documentary evidence has been backed up by the sighting recollections of three Australian Army Veterans. luckily while they were still alive, their accounts being on film.

      This modest project in Australian is abiding by the “each and every theory has to be investigated” rule it has imposed on itself and to aid and assist in that effort, so far I have received around 85 thousand of our dollars in assistance towards expeditions (even my Mother-in-law gave 500 of those !)…. Each of the visits now costs around 25-30 K so you can see that for all the trips we have made over the last 23 years some other money had to come from somewhere and the answer to that is “My pocket”. All in all I think there is a bit of an imbalance there “money wise”, when we do have evidence, compared to the aforementioned U.S. based attempts at finding the Electra, without evidence.

      As I put in one of my last replies, the words of Alan Caldwell are straightforward and true…he basically said, “No one knows where it went and no one knows how far it went”.

      So, again, yes, I have seen the video, all the way through …..and it joins the C & S Club.




  3. Its a pity Major Lodrige hasn’t seen Mr Billings extensive website . DB has such detailed workings and facts concerning fuel , winds, contacts , and all the key areas that would have been of interest and significance to the Major in arriving at his conclusion.


  4. Hi David, Your theory, like others, maybe possible but not very probable. See my explanation on google you tube.
    We replaced some of the fuel in a rich mixture with water to allow a more desirable fuel/air ratio for high power
    settings; water provided cooling.( My only experience with water in fuel). Wet air is lighter than cold air and higher
    the temperature , the lighter the air. Probably had both working against their performance.
    My coordinates for her disappearance is 10 minutes N/ 175 degrees 55 minutes W.
    Good luck on you r next venture. Sincerely, Joe


  5. “… and Good Luck to all who sail in her…”….

    That epithet has been said at many a ship’s launching and in a way it applies to all those that get entangled in the Earhart Mystery and end up spending years of their lives In trying to untangle the mystery and to reach and to provide a sound conclusion for those in mental anguish.

    So it is, that I have spent the last 23 years on trying to figure out what happened so as to provide a plausible explanation. So it is that I have done that because this project actually does hold the only piece of tangible evidence that exists in the world as to where the Electra may lie. I say may lie, but personally, on the evidence we have I believe that the Electra was seen by the Australian Diggers in April1945. I do believe it to be the Electra.

    I have tried to explain, very carefully, in an analysis of the evidence; all the little intricacies that I can think of to reason why it is, that I believe the wreck is the Electra.

    I have tried to explain that there are two sides to the East New Britain Search Project.

    The first side, is the tangible evidence of a wreck in the jungle, an all-metal unpainted wreck with no military insignia, no outer identification that was seen and which had Pratt & Whitney Wasp engines.. The writing on a map gives us information for identification, it relates to the Army Patrol which found “a” wreck and it relates to a “Reference” and that reference is to Earhart’s Electra. That is the first side to the Project.

    The second side to the project is a HYPOTHESIS of the “how’ in “how in hell did it get back to East New Britain.” I really do not care so much about the second side of the project, in fact I care not what people think about this side of the Project. I provided it only to give an idea of what happened as a hypothesis. To add to that hypothesis, of late, I will say that currently because of the erratic navigation aspects late in the flight, I do begin to think Noonan became incapacitated.

    My concern remains the same as it always has been, which is to find and identify the wreck the Diggers saw and prove it either way, prove it is Earhart’s and allow the recovery of the remains by an appropriate authority, for decent burials. If it is not Earhart’s, it will be eliminated from the search and whosoever’s aircraft it is, there will possibly be remains to be notified to the appropriate authorities.

    All the toing and froing, all the pushing of one project against the next …..that has really no place in my thinking, I am concerned with finding that wreck is all. That is it, all else is superfluous.




  6. David:
    Kudos to your diligent extraordinary performance compilations in demonstrating how AE’s Electra-10E could have stayed airborne 32 hours (averaging 34 gph). It would have required total concentration of aviating with emphasis on precise engine management. It’s a fascinating read.
    Yes, “Good Luck to all who sail in her.” And in such nautical terms one may conclude that Earhart’s sail was too large for her hull.



  7. Fair comment David. But you’ll have to put up with all the speculation! Having said that your case is by far the most convincing, and backed up with a lot of detail. Another sort of speculation question for you,If Noonan was incapacitated and you were the pilot on the Electra, where would you head for for medical aid- I suppose it would depend whether it was a minor incapacity or something more serious like a heart attack..


    1. @ “H” Dec 23rd….
      I can put up with the speculation and if I don’t like it I can always ignore it….

      It is speculation on my part that Noonan may have been incapacitated, but the two radio messages: “about 200 miles out, approximately” followed by “about 100 miles out” one half hour later do not give me confidence that they could have come from Noonan, a 200 mph G./S into a headwind would say that the manifold pressure had been increased and they were gulping fuel, which is not likely on a long distance flight. The repeated indecisiveness indicators “about” and “approximately”, are words that indicate that their status is “imprecise” something a Navigator would not openly say until he had no option but to say it, in other words “I am lost” but at 10,000 feet with some distance to go, I feel that the words as spoken are not words “He” would use and therefore they would have come from Earhart. If it was minor he would have carried on. Food poisoning comes to mind as a crippler.

      Where could she go ? Not much choice at all if she was on her own and could not expect any help from Noonan, If HOW refused to appear she has no choice but to turn back for The Gilberts and hope for the best. If she is on her own, she cannot leave the controls. Remember that people moving around on Ann Pellegreno’s 10 A affected the trim of the aircraft so too dangerous to climb back over the tanks to aid Noonan if he was floored and I say “If”.

      …and now MERRY CHRISTMAS to all the readers of this website…




  8. I don’t think the Indiegogo was a great success for the project David but now you have so much detail on this website might it be worth a go at another CrowdFunding perhaps with a different Crowdfunder?


    1. @”H” Jan 1st

      The Indiegogo fund raiser of what ? 4-5 years ago ? …..was a complete failure because it was set up incorrectly. At the time a lady in Los Angeles had sent some funding and she had the temporary “rights” to the story under a contract. She was attempting further fundraising by this method and she and her friends decided to set it up without including me as the “face” of the funding appeal and instead placed another guy as the “explaining person” when he was not qualified to do that. I didn’t like it but there was little I could do at the time. I think the total I received was under 2 Grand which went nowhere on the next trip.

      I think I have explained before that part of the problem of accepting funding from a person or persons is that they want their slice of the action by a contract signature and it usually incurs signing away the story rights in perpetuity or for a set period. In the case above the capture of the rights depended on completion of the funding arrangement in a set period of time, something that I had insisted upon and which was stipulated in the contract. The period passed and the contract became null….. Luckily.

      Since then the words “in perpetuity” do not exist for me in the English language when it is in reference to the rights to the story of the Earhart Search Project in East New Britain.

      Regards and Happy New Year to All,


  9. David, you obviously know the terrain and jungle characteristics of the likely crash site you are looking at although I appreciate it might have been a bit different in 1937 but I wonder what chance you think the planes crew would have stood of initial survival ? Would the trees be strong enough to support the Electra, at least for a while, and if injured would Earhart and Noonan be able to descend safely to ground level. Would post crash radio messages have been feasible in certain circumstances in your view?


    1. @ “H” Jan 5th

      The Vets described a “round hole” maybe 40 feet across with trees having broken branches visible and the aircraft on the ground on its’ underside. The cockpit smashed back to the wing and the right hand wing bent upwards at the tip from about ten feet or so from the tip. Sounds to me as if it went straight through the tree canopy and hit the ground on the nose and starboard wingtip. The missing engine is the Port engine which if the records are correct should be Serial No. 6150.. I have previously discussed the fact that the props could not be feathered and depending on the position of the Pitch Levers would depend on what the props would do. Possible scenario is a spin to the right and rapid descent into the trees and the impetus ripping the No. 1 engine out and the aircraft going straight though breaking branches and hitting the ground. I would think survivability would be nil. The front of the aircraft was very lightly built hence the damage rearwards to the more substantial wing.
      Radio ? No, not in my view.



  10. If locals had come across the wreckage would they have removed any of the contents from the Electra? I wonder if there are any stories of items from the plane finding their way into villages , and if anything might still exist somewhere?


    1. @ “H Jan 28th….

      A good question. The Pomio people possibly would have “if” they had found it, but they do not know where it is. They are as puzzled as we have been since 1994 when they came in with us to search for the first time under my auspices and they had also been with one search party in 1993. Generally speaking, local people do not enter aircraft wrecks in case there is anything in there which can go “Bang”.

      As you know “H”: and everyone that reads the website knows, I do firmly believe with the evidence we have that we are on to the resting place of the Electra and the missing Earhart and Noonan. Therefore, the wreckage will have been laying out in the open from the years 1937 until the year that I strongly suspect it was buried by the bulldozer driver: “1996”

      We do know that the wreck was off the ridgeline and just slightly down the slope of the ridge to the northern side. The ridgeline runs roughly NNW to ESE.

      What kind of events have occurred in that region of New Britain Island since July 1937 where local people could possibly find the wreck ?

      There has been a tribe of nomadic people called the MOLKOLKOL living in there for many years pre WWII, during WWII and up until 1951. As well as being nomadic they were very violent and were known for raiding villages on the north side of the island in the OPEN BAY area and also on the south side in the WIDE BAY area where the search we do takes place. Two Molkolkol were shot by retreating Australian Troops in the MUMUS River valley when they attacked the party with long handled axes. They were known to co-operate with the Japanese during WWII. They were rounded up in 1951 by the Australian Administration and were taken to RABAUL and integrated into the BAINING Tribes and generally now are known to live in peace and are not distinguishable from the other tribes around the GAZELLE Peninsula. The worst raid they committed killed 51 people on the Wide Bay Coast most probably in the LAMERIEN area where we go and is most probably the reason why they were rounded up. This Molkolkol story is possibly significant to your question because a nomadic tribe wandering through the jungle may have come across the wreck and may have disturbed the contents. This has been at the back of my mind since that the story about a briefcase belong to Earhart was reported found in a locked safe on Saipan and which may very well be true “IF” the Molkolkol had found the wreckage and had handed in a briefcase to the Japanese on New Britain Island.

      The local POMIO people in the Lamerien area are peaceful folk and are very welcoming to us when we go there. They do not venture very far from their coastal village and if they go to the forest to the West it will be for hunting purposes or for their manhood rites and we have seen these occasions. When they do travel through the forest they generally follow the ridgelines. They assure me positively that they have never seen this wreck we look for but they have seen the B-17 in the Mumus River area. They took me to that in the year 2000. In fact, these are the same tribe of people who recovered some of the bodies of the crew in 1942 and who took them and buried them behind the RILE Church as the story goes… and which were recovered post-war. They are as interested as we are to find the wreck for it will give an opportunity to bring tourists to their area. If they knew where it was they would tell me. It was they who told me in 2011 that the wreck was buried on purpose when the secret broke and the brother-in -law of the deceased bulldozer driver on hearing we were back again looking for it, ‘confessed’ to holding the secret and came out with it but he himself does not know “where” it is buried.

      Extensive logging has been carried out in the area and on the ridgeline, hence the bulldozer entering the scene in 1996. or just slightly earlier. I have an aerial photo I took from the cockpit of a Fokker F28 when I asked the Captain if he would kindly slightly deviate to fly over the area on our way back from RABAUL to Port MORESBY. He did so and I could see that the loggers had made many tracks through the jungle in their pursuit of timber and this would be when “Alvinus” the BD Driver would have been making these tracks .

      Luckily our visit in late 1996 took us to this area and my memory bank recorded the large patch of loose earth just off to the north side of the ridgeline and off the ridgeline BD track. This, fits with the description given by the patrol Lieutenant, Ken Backhouse. Finding that patch in a terribly overgrown and secondary jungle area which the ridge has become after the damage done by the logging… is now the nightmare we face.




  11. Is it beyond the realms of possibility that you could get a few local people you know and trust to undertake some ground examination if you send out some equipment and guidance , maybe remotely supervising them somehow ? One ‘educated’ leader could maybe supervise such a local search.


    1. Ground penetrating radar rentals …http://allgpr.com/rental

      LIDAR UAV Drone rentals …https://www.lidarusa.com/

      Deep penetrating metal detectors. https://www.okmmetaldetectors.com/en/depth-penetration-table/ “The engine of a fighter plane was located by Future I-160 in about 5 m depth under CONCRETE soil.” (16.4 ft)

      On Fri, Mar 2, 2018 at 10:44 AM, Earhart Lockheed Electra Search Project wrote:

      > ‘H’ commented: “Is it beyond the realms of possibility that you could get > a few local people you know and trust to undertake some ground examination > if you send out some equipment and guidance , maybe remotely supervising > them somehow ? One ‘educated’ leader could maybe ” >


    2. @ “H” for 28 February….
      I am sorry to say that it would be beyond the realms of possibility to do that. We are talking about a very remote rural area where education standards are low and sense and sensibility are poor. It’s not their fault, education has always been the key to unlocking the potential of the people of Papua New Guinea but where we go there are no Government services.
      An education is reliant in Missionary schools and other outside help. It was said to me some years ago by an Administrator of a Church Society who had been on PNG for many years that the Pomio people of East New Britain were some of the most disadvantaged peoples in PNG


  12. A further question David, can you be confident you and your team haven’t been over the wreckage on some earlier visits and that your equipment has failed to detect it? Is the equipment you use capable and reliable in giving readings?


  13. Amelia Earhart was groomed to be be an inspirational female. Told to smile so as not to show her gapped front teeth, for instance. Flushed with success after crossing the Atlantic, Ms Earhart was determined to prove herself as the first aviatrix to circumnavigate via the longest route, the equator. After the Luke Field incident, AE looked westward with FN to prove herself minus Manning and Mantz, so as to arrive in the USA on 4th of July celebrations with intention of publishing thereafter. As Remy Martin put it, ” …Earhart’s sail was too large for her hull”. Logistics. Logistics. Logistics.


    1. Could just be a case of unknown knowns, known unknowns, known knowns and unknown unknowns…

      Maybe she got to Gardner, got captured by the Japanese via a submarine, who then pulled the Electra off to ENB, then took Earhart to Saipan for execution, Fred already being dead as stated in Betty’s notebook…

      Or perhaps she crash-landed at ENB, the Japanese followed her, took sundry items to Gardner such as Fred’s banjo, the Electra’s toilet paper (which apparently can be seen in HD video), engine casing, Earhart’s freckle cream jar etc, to make it look like the plane landed there…then took FN and AE to Saipan so that Fred -an expert in Celestial Navigation- could teach the Japanese his navigation techniques in preparation for Pearl Harbor, and AE could show them the nursing skills she picked up in Canada, as well as show the Japanese how to fly a plane with no real ability to do so.


  14. Sorry Guys, I’ve been busy since Feb 4th with posts to the “PPrune Forum” on “Pacfic and General Questions…. there is a thread about Earhart on there, just catching u now….

    For “H”on March 5th:
    Maybe we have been over the site and didn’t pick it up on our MD’s… Ill have to think about that.. There is a new kind of Metal Detector on sale which does go down abut ten feet (3 Metres) but it is quite expensive around US$10,000 i I believe, I could not justify that at present in y finances.

    For “ad rem” on March 15th:
    You seem to be reinforcing the point that she “took a lot on” by choosing to fly as near to the equator as she could… So you have done that. That’s what happens, “Records ” are made to be broken is the only reply I can think of….

    For “passing Through” on March 16th:
    You have just proven that it is possible “to make stuff up !”…… Mr. Gillespie would decorate you with an “Order of Loch Aber” if he had an inking of how much you have advertised his Assumptions and Misleading Claims. There has been a development in the misleading claims department though:… The Aluminum aircraft skin scrap which he calls “The Patch” has been found to accurately match the starboard upper wing skin area of a C-47 but he has not announced this yet, even though the match was found last July 2017 by the Staff at the New England Aircraft Museum. Search the TIGHAR website and you will find no reference to the match being made… “Go figure” why there has been no admittance that “The Patch” is a non-event, after all the thousands and thousands of words expending trying to prove it came from the Electra…

    For Remy Martin in March 20th:
    No, no, no, Gillespie might pick upon it and try to raise funds with it… It would be a JP Barnum moment !

    Regards to all,


  15. David, some independent support in the form of peer reviewed paper.

    The Nikumaroro Bones Identification Controversy:
    First-hand Examination versus Evaluation by Proxy –
    Amelia Earhart Found or Still Missing?

    Pamela J. Cross
    Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford UK

    Richard Wright
    Emeritus Professor of Anthropology, University of Sydney, Australia

    “Without access to the missing original bones, it is impossible to be definitive, but on balance, the most robust scientific analysis and conclusions are those of the original British finding indicating the Nikumaroro bones belonged to a robust, middle-aged man, not Amelia Earhart.” (Page 1)

    “This critical review of the original British investigation and the 1998 reassessment finds there is no supportable evidence to impugn the original British analyses. The most robust analysis of the Nikumaroro bones indicates the individual was most likely a stocky male, not Amelia Earhart.” (Page 17)

    Both above quotes used for educational purposes and are copyright. Cross/Wright 2015: The Nikumaroro Bones and Amelia Earhart.



    1. @ad rem, Aril 1st:

      Yes, this is the paper that spurred TUGHAR into getting DR. Richard Jantz to carry out another miracle and declare Male bones Female at long distance in space and time from the original “Two Doctors” appraisal of what they (underlined) made to be MALE bones (they actually handled them) made in 1941. All together this farce of re-gendering..an already correct gender notation into something like a cross between Monty Python and FawltyTowers.


  16. back in January 2015 the TV show Expedition Unknown did the PNG search for AE. Perhaps it is time to get Josh Gates and do a follow up. Your evidence is compelling enough to get them involved, which in turn gets publicity which translates to funding.


    1. Yes, I had josh Gates contact me about four years ago and we corresponded. What I realised form all the talk was that Josh Gates is all about Josh Gates and any show done by him would be a cavalcade of antics involving all the theories rolled into one half hour show interrupted by adverts. I don’t think Gillespie of TIGHAR was impressed either….

      Basically, I don;t think he was serious enough and leave it at that.



      1. David- The pPrune website concerning your search has so much interesting content and has generated a fantastic level of interest – people on pPrune should read your website and people who have just read your website should take a look at the pPrune correspondence. When will The Australian article be published?


        1. @ H for 5th June….

          My apologies for the late reply but I have been waiting for the newspaper’s photographer to appear for a “photoshoot”…. of me !

          In respect to the readers of “pprune”, the website title has been put up there quite a few times so surely most of those readers will have read at least some of he website, although from some statements made it is obvious some have not….. Lead a horse to water comes to mind…

          The article due to be printed in the Weekend Magazine should be coming up soon as the lady photographer came this morning (16th) so I guess the pics will be transmitted in the next couple of days and then the article will be set up… so possibly the June 30th “Weekend Australian” is my guess because that will coincide with the loss of the Electra 3rd July…..

          Regards. David.


  17. Hi All. Is it possible that Earhart and Noonan landed at the Marshall Islands, as suggested in one theory, and their aircraft was commandeered and repaired by the Japanese during WWII for the purpose of covert operations? An American aircraft would be ideal for a raid on New Britain, or for reconnaissance. This could explain much of the evidence reported in the article in the Australian. Apologies if this is an old or unwelcome proposition.


    1. Hi Richard, David and All
      I am new at looking at all this, but am astounded at all the details assembled on the WEB sites – i.e. Tighar, PPrune and this one.
      However it all comes back to the facts – the start of the flight (there is no dispute) and the finish which may have a few conclusions. i.e. Ocean, remote Pacific Island, PNG or something else.
      It appears that the end of the flight evidence is the key element in all of this, thus the evidence of the aircraft or human remains.
      From Tighar it appears a remote Pacific Island may the answer and from this site that PNG may be the answer. Both possible proposals have credible research and site visits, but the metal or remains appear elusive to date.
      So it really gets back to finding some aircraft remains in PNG with the latest technology and with modern metallurgy history analysis it would answer that part.
      Due to the remoteness of the site and difficulties in financing such, it appears that maybe a group of interested parties approach could be considered.
      I am also not young (73) but have worked in PNG (Lihir), was an amateur pilot and are willing to assist.
      Kind Regards


    2. @Richard Kelsob 4th August

      Like the saying goes: “Anything’s possible”. Let us just wander into Google Earth and take a look at where the most popular destination in the theory of the Marshall Island , “Mili Atoll” is situated. In this exercise we will say that at 1030 GMT the “Ship in sight ahead” radio call was meaning that the ship actually was the USS ONTARIO. MILI is almost directly N.E. of where the ONTARIO was positioned .

      After leaving the ONTARIO the Electra now takes a 45 degree alteration to the course for HOWLAND and heads for the Marshall s 770 miles away. The headwind is now a quartering “abeam” wind and they can make 150 mph groundspeed. The track line passes NAURU off to the left by ten miles.. The Electra will be there in five hours at 1530 GMT or about 2:30 am in the early morning, Local time. (Why go there in the dark ?)

      From MILI to HOWLAND is a further 880 miles and they now have a headwind quotient of about 20 mph and speed is reduced to around 130 mph G/S., They have 880 miles to run and will be at HOWLAND at 2215 GMT or 10:45 Local “ITASCA” time. If Earhart called at 1912 GMT, “…must be on you…” she will be 390 miles from HOWLAMD still, with three hours to run.

      The event described would still have happened in 1937 and fishing an aluminum aircraft out of seawater and having “enough” fresh water (Thousands of gallons) on an Atoll in the Pacific with which ti hose it out in every nook and cranny with fresh water “immediately”,to stop it corroding is out of the question… Then in top of T==that you have to hide it for five years while you reconditionthe engines for the purpose of reconnaissance over New Britain in a war which had not yet been contemplated…. You also need to build a runway somewhere, which they did on TRUK….

      No, I don’t think they flew up to MILI, either that way or “off course” or after they didn’t get to HOWLAND Because to fly from the track line to MILI from where I think they oit to is still over 700 miles in a N.E. direction when The Contingency Plan was to fly to The GILBERTS if they could not find Howland.

      The adage, “..if you do not know where you are, you cannot Navigate to a known destination”, holds true and that also applies to NIKUMARORO. Attempting the Marshalls or NIkumaroro from an unknown position is madness compared to back tracking for The Gilberts that you alreday know are behind you. It is the same plan as when you are lost in a City.



      1. @Ron Haggart AUG 4th

        Yes there is a MS Excel spreadsheet on my laptop which has been put onto the website in condensed format in a MS Word Table. To print the Excel file would be some 30 pages. That file was done at 14700 lbs AUW with a max iof 10K Feet altitude. I also have one for 15000 AUW at 10K ALT. Earhart had also flown the Electra in the U.S. from NYC to Phoenix at 12,000 feet and I have contemplated doing that as well but have not yet got around to it.

        There is a definite advantage by flying higher which conserves just a little bit more fuel (I have found). So, by my figures to fuel exhaustion it could just make it….therefore if it can make it at 10,000 feet it cab make it at 12,000 feet where air resistance is lower. By using the system derived from LR487 Page 30 data, you can also see where the direct drive suoerchaging blower reaches its limits when you climb the Electra and do the maths by the formulas… there is a perceptible minor change in the fuel flow requirement after 5000 feet, to me anyway….. Quite weird to see it happen



        1. HI Bill and thanks for your response and Web details.

          One could possibly come up with the conclusion that they were hopelessly lost with most of the outward leg at night i.e.

          Noonan described his tools and procedures for plotting the Clipper’s course. He wrote, “The actual navigation was comparable with such as would be practiced afloat—fixes were determined entirely by stellar observations at night.”

          I have travelled to and from Lihir Island many times and I would not like to be navigating by stars at night (astrodome?? – side windows??) in this area. On several occasions the commercial flight could not see the Island to land during daylight and was diverted to Kavieng. All one could see on some returns were the cone of Mt Ulawun (2,334M) rising through the clouds.

          If it were me I would go back from whence I came using the opposite compass headings, thinking I could not possibly miss Bougainville, New Ireland or New Britain in daylight.

          It could be suggested weather entrapped them again with little fuel in fading light in New Britain thus the end of the flight as proposed.


    3. Richard, I think that anyone who is studying this seriously keeps an open mind at some level, whatever theory they favour. It is worth remembering that the Japanese were not at war with the US in 1937 and were interested in international developments in aviation. They bought one model 10 Electra from Lockheed in 1938, and several model 14s later, and went on to build them under license, so if they wanted an American aircraft for some purpose during the war they would have several available. I hope that doesn’t start a new conspiracy theory!


      1. @Tom, Richard and Ron…. re: This Discussion “Marshalls”

        For me, I have to look at this question pragmatically and use logic….

        It stands to reason that to end up in The Marshall Islands would mean such a change in direction if on the “outbound leg” as to be able to say, “Looks like she was a spy after all…”, for to make that big a mistake is outside of the Navigating abilities of Frederick Noonan and therefore, must have been “on purpose” but then again, exactly what would Earhart be able to see at 2:30 am in the morning when they did arrive ?

        If she went there after failing to find Howland Island and with a “Now Known” Contingency Plan it defies logic that if that plan was to backtrack to The Gilberts, then they fly back into the west, initially with the sun on their right hand side abeam the aircraft, later, they will be following the sun. If they turn for The Marshalls and head NW,, the sun will initially be ahead if them and later it will be on their left-hand side. This would mean that Noonan could not recognise this simple navigational aid , “the sun” and had also totally lost his compass.

        To some the Marshalls seem logical and to some others the Phoenix Group of Islands seem the place to be. The Marshalls by any look are further away from The Gilberts, when you pull up Google Earth and use the measuring tool. The Phoenix Group are closer than the Gilberts but widely spaced and could easily be missed. The danger with both of these selections is that, if you have failed to find Howland it means that “the NAVIGATION” has failed, if the Navigation has failed, it unfortunately means you areblost or “unsure of your position”… If you are UOYP, you cannot navigatie to anywhere there is a known position off your course. BUT, and it is a big BUT… If you know that on your present course you did pass over a string of islands, you will know that it you turn 180 degrees you will reach them again… That is why she picked The Gilberts, logically, it is the best bet.



      2. Hi Tom and Bill

        This suggests that the aircraft could be a Thalia, Thelma or Toby, but this would conflict with the identification tag and map research. These aircraft appear to have different engines, cowlings and propeller sets etc.



        They certainly would pass for covert operations in PNG and are also very similar in appearance to the very common Beechcraft Model 18 of the period..

        The best solution would be to locate the aircraft.


        1. Thalia’s, Thelma’s, Thora, Topsy’s and Tabby’s…

          All Japanese transport types and I recall the Mitsubishi “Nell” was also used as a trans[port.

          The “Thelma’s” and “Thalia’s” were Japanese derivatives of the Lochheed Model 14 known as the “Hudson”. I have a picture somewhere of a twin-fin and rudder aircraft lying in a scrapheap at Hollandia (now Jayapura) and the distinctive Fin and Rudder assembly and stub tailplane outboard of the fin says, “Lockheed” but it is a Thalia or a Thelma as it has the ‘Frise’ type segment on the rudder leading edge which sticks out into the airflow and assists pilot load. The Electra did not have that Frise segment so the wreck is clearly similar to a Hudson and is the Japanese model so they did use the Thalia/Thelma aircraft in the Dutch East Indies but I have not heard of the use in New Guinea.These two used Nakajima enginesin the 1000 H.P. range…

          “Thora: and Topsy” were a light transport with Nakajima and Mitsubishi engines, respectively….. I can’t find Toby !

          “Tabby” was the licence built DC-3 and the engines would have to be bigger than 600 H.P.



          1. For Toby

            From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lockheed_Model_14_Super_Electra

            Lockheed Type LO Transport Aircraft Long designation given to 30 Model 14-WG3B aircraft delivered by Lockheed for use by Nihon Koku K.K. (Greater Japan Airways Co. Ltd). Given the allied reporting name Toby.

            I appear to be drifting of subject and I think the key points are the unpainted wing top and the engine frame identifications map tag details.

            So just to confuse myself further with some nonsense on these two issues
            1. It appears all military aircraft in PNG WW2 were painted, and any non-military unpainted plane would certainly arouse suspicion.
            2. From http://www.lockheed.adastron.com/electra/eleclist.htm there is a list of all Australian delivered Model 10-A (9 off), 12-A (4 off) and 14 (9 off) and subsequent histories with none missing.
            3. From Earhart’s first attempt crash repairs, could the repaired engine mount with the tag attached have been fitted to a later manufactured / repaired aircraft. Earhart’s 1055 was number 5 of 15 10-E’s in the manufacturing line of 149 total. So how many were manufactured and sold unpainted prior to the beginning of the WW2.
            4. One could also ask are the engine mounts frames interchangeable for the 10-A, C and E using the different model Wasp engines. We are now going around in circles looking for an unpainted Model 10 with a repaired 1055 10-E engine mount frame sold prior to WW2..
            5. Model 14’s appear to be a non-event as all Model 14’s had engines of 875+ horsepower and would have different engine mount frames..

            The evidence needs be substantiated from the PNG aircraft.

            Ron H


  18. I am relatively new to this, and initially thought that crashed-and-sank was most likely, but since some of the post-loss radio calls appeared to be genuine I started looking at the range of the aircraft, and that brought me to David’s research quite quickly. As an engineer I like his approach and I think he is right. It is worth looking at the other theories if only to discount them, except that life is too short….and it does seem almost certain that the wreck in PNG is the Electra. The only possible Japanese involvement (apart from the fact that they assisted in the search) is that one of their wartime patrols might have found the wreck before the Australians did, as David himself has written. If so it should have been recorded, and I wonder if there is anything in Japanese archives?


  19. Yes, i wonder too if a Japanese patrol might have come across the wreckage – if so they might have removed things like papers or brief cases etc. Which would have found their way somewhere into Japanese military circles.


  20. David,

    This is a piece of speculation, but may be of interest. Looking at the flight from Lae towards Howland in part 6, if Noonan was compos mentis and saw the Ontario, he would, as you say, have calculated a revised ETA – but he does not seem to have passed it on to Earhart – hence “must be on you” at 1912. Could this have been deliberate? He might have concluded that with no astro, significant head winds, and doubtful radio, they were not likely to find Howland, and pretending to be lost was the most diplomatic way of getting Earhart to turn back sooner rather than later. Just my thoughts.


    1. @ Ron Haggart: Your points…..
      1. A lot Japanese aircraft were not a[painted at the start, all allied aircraft were until some appeared unpainted when air superiority was achieved. Your point is correct though that an aircraft unpainted AND without military insignia would be noticed… as it was.
      2. All Model 10’s have been accounted for except for two, CN’s 1055 ad 1065. 1065 is in Russia somewhere.
      3. If all others are accounted for, “No”… plus it is not likely. Sending it out fir repair in order to refit later was O.K. because they had plenty of time with the rebuild on their hands. I would hazard that all of them were delivered unpainted… whatever order they went down the line, her’s was CN1055.
      4. The other engines were smaller so the mount pickups would be unique to the R-1340 engines. I doubt that there was adifference to the 550 HP version and the 600HP version, the pickup points would be the same but possibly the n 600 mounts had slightly bigger tubing. I don’t know on that.

      @ Tom Gwyn and @”H”:
      I have enough trouble with Australian Records without tackling hyroglyphics !
      It is feasible that wandering local people such as the Molkolkol did find it and report to the Japanese, I have as you say “spoken of that” I would not say it could not have happened but cannot say that it did…

      @ Tom Gwyn:
      Navigators will pass on a new ETA, it is standard practice. The time if the “overhead” at Nukumanu is critical to assess their average G/S over the distance NUK – ONTARIO. My working believes that they were abeam NUK at about 0710 0710 GMT(7:10 hours into the flight) and with about 430 miles to go (off the tip of my head) their Av G/S would work out to 124 mph…meaning a G/S at the ONTARIO of about 120 mph, down 18 mph so realistically that would be his latest speed and with around 1250 miles to go the ETA would be in 10 hours making it 2036 GMT so calling at 1912 GMT was 1:24 too early (rough figures while I am replying). I think I have this on the website. It just does not make sense to me why she called “on you” at 1912 GMT. I have said before, I am beginning to think, she panicked due to the conditions.



      1. From what I can see on the Web, It appears there were 2 only 10-E specials with long range capabilities 1055 and 1065.

        Of the 15 only 10-E’s, I can only find 1025 (Ejército Argentino), 1042, 1053, 1054, 1055, 1065, 1133 (Pan Am) & 1130 (Pan Am) = 8 only, but I suspect Pan Am took delivery of many more, thus I have several missing 10-E’s.

        But this is all academic if10-E engines may not be interchangeable without a new engine mount frame for a 10- A,B,C although it appears some conversions were done i.e. 1138..

        The earlier 1017 model Lockheed KXL1 to Japan is a mystery and 1065 is already covered in detail.

        So enough of all this confusion, which takes us no closer to the PNG site.


  21. Marshall Islands way out thoughts.

    Another explanation how 1055 could have ended up in PNG from the Marshall Islands.

    Japan must have desperately required detailed military information on SE Asia for its East Asian Federation plans prior to WW2.

    For spying at the time, what better aircraft could there be than 1055 10-E;
    1. Long range – 4,000 + miles,
    2. Could be mistaken (with a new ID) for any of the many unpainted 10, 12 or 14’s that may have operated in the area – American, Australia, Guinea Airways, Indonesia KNILM and Japan NKYKK.

    Of course this would mean the unhappy end for Earhart and Noonan as has already been proposed.

    If 1055 was lost on one of these flights nobody may be the wiser and worth the risk.


    1. @Ron Haggart
      Well, a good theory… but as I said previously, they would need the whole of one of The MarshalI Island (Atoll) lagoons to be fresh water p.d.q., in order to wash all the salt out of the Electra plus a reconditioning shop for the engines…. They had all the photographs and maps they needed for Rabaul and the Gazelle peninsula anyway…. Japanese “Maru’s” had been calling in to the harbour at Rabaul for years…..
      An excellent book is; “Hostages to Freedom – The Fall of Rabaul” by Peter Stone ISBN0646241249 …. It is a fairly hefty tome, full of maps and photographs, you can’t put it down… Try your local library, too expensive to buy, I got in early….!


      1. I was assuming from other Web sites that 1055 was recovered from the land (not the water) and shipped elsewhere (Saipan?) from Jabat Island.

        The Japanese radio ciphers were broken by 1937.

        US would not divulge any knowledge of Earhart gleaned from ciphers thus endangering code discoveries under any circumstances as area tensions were well established by then.

        The metal tag is probably siting in an intelligence cupboard somewhere.

        From other Web sites and http://www.mvariety.com/cnmi/cnmi-news/local/102064-group-to-build-amelia-earhart-monument-on-saipan Saipan is now proposed for a monument etc.

        I was also thinking other sensitive SE areas.


        1. @Ron Haggart…

          Heard today from MIke Campbell that the Saipan memorial is unlikely to go ahead.

          The only two missing Model 10E’s are 1055 and 1065 but we do know that 1065 was sold to Russia after Sir Hubert Wilkins (Australian Arctic Explorer) used it to search for the missing Russian Crew of a 1930’s bomber which was to make a “goodwill” tour of the States.

          George Carrington’s book on Earhart has a full list of Electra’s in the back of the book (including the XC-35)
          ISBN 0-9693175-2-2. It is a useful book but carries baggage.



  22. Ron, I’m afraid I can’t quite get my head around that! I think if the Japanese wanted to fly a secret mission over PNG in 1937 they would have planned it carefully with their own aircraft.

    David, you are probably right that she panicked in the conditions, and it is certainly not worth arguing about. It just seemed to me that she did not know the new ETA, and as a navigating instructor, Noonan would have been well able to stay one jump ahead of his students.

    None of this gets any closer to finding the wreck – may I ask whether you have made any more progress there?


    1. The Japanese South Pacific Mandate (HQ Saipan) was a very big area with much military development in the 1930’s including airfields.

      From this area 1055 with a range of 4,500 + miles + oxygen = 5,000 miles maybe, could fly over most of SE Asia including Australia without raising suspicion.

      From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_aircraft_of_Japan_during_World_War_II it appears there were no Japanese aircraft capable of this performance available in 1937 except maybe Kawanishi H6K (Mavis) which was not conspicuous.

      In 1937 they could not have had recent aerial photograph installations of SE Asia areas of interest for planning without raising some suspicion.

      From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidney_Cotton is a good example of Electra spying prior to WW2.

      The point of all of this is that 1055 could have come from somewhere else as an other alternate to a direct return to PNG.

      So hopefully, the rediscovery in the near future of the 1055 will reveal all.

      Amen (so be it).


  23. There has been a lot of interest since the newspaper article was published and I have been asked how much it would cost to carry out a LiDAR Survey followed by a Ground Search. I am waiting for one quote and then I can submit a budget. There have been no promises made as to it going ahead unfettered by financial constraints and I have not been offered a cash lump sum in order to go ahead independently. As it has always been, it is a case of “wait and see” what happens after publicity, One thing is for sure, and tht is that I cannot spend any more on it.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s